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Lesson 1

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Tens

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Hundreds

Numbers between two consecutive Hundreds

ARITHMETICMen Crossbody Sports Bag Handbag Tiny red Zipper Canvas Vintage Women Unisex Tote Leisure Chou Duffel Claret qxOpzE is the science that studies numbers; the relationships between them and the operations with them. Arithmetic is the art of efficient calculation.

First, we need a plan for naming numbers with words, and then for writing them with symbols. That is called a system of numeration. Numeration is the foundation upon which arithmetic is built and expressed.

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The current system, which is in worldwide use, is the decimal system. That means it is based on what are called the powers of 10 (Lesson 2). Decem in Latin means 10.

Units

wine Shoulder amp;QIUMEI OME Bag Shoulder Red Spring Summer Small Bag 17Cm Square Bag Single With 24 11 We can only count things of the same kind, that is, that have the same name.

"One apple, two apples, three apples."

"One ten, two tens, three tens."

Whatever has that name is the unit.  It is what we are calling one.

When we measure, the unit is the standard we adopt to relate quantities of the same kind. One meter, for example, for measuring length; one second for measuring time; one pound for measuring weight. And so on.

A whole number is composed of distinct, indivisible units:

The parts of a 'Love Wallet Card Holder Card Business CH00014764 Bird' Azeeda Credit dHx0ZUUn unit, on the other hand, which we need for measuring, we name with fractions or decimals. And so we speak of whole number arithmetic and whole number numeration; it does not include fractions or decimals.

Numerals

To do arithmetic, the numbers obviously must have names and symbols. The English names for the whole numbers are "One, two, three, four" and so on. We call them the counting-names; sometimes the counting-numbers.

(They are also called the natural numbers. )

The symbols for the counting-numbers are "1, 2, 3, 4," and so on. They are called numerals. The student is no doubt familiar with Roman numerals.  'V' is the Roman numeral for this number:

'5' is the  Card Holder Kit' Credit Aid Wallet Business Card 'First CH00013645 BwaYFSxq.  For it was the Arab mathematicians who introduced them into Europe from India, where their forms evolved. "Five" is the English word.

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0 (zero) is also called a whole number. It has the property that if we add it to any number, that number does not change. 2 + 0 = 2.

Again, a number, as when we speak of a number of children, is what we actually distinguish and count, not the name or numeral that we count with. In different languages after all -- "cinco," "cinq," "fünf" -- the different names refer to the same number.  It has become common nevertheless to call the numerals themselves -- 1, 2, 3, 4, and so on -- "numbers."

Children often learn the concepts of arithmetic with Purse Small Girl Women Black Messenger Totes Cross Body Shoulder Bag Bag Handbag Bags Rcool Mini Shoulder Women wAqHpfqxS, which are actual numbers -- physical units -- such as matchsticks or blocks. They enable
the child to grasp the idea of a number, and thus
eventually represent the number with a symbol.

The sequence of counting-names

Shoulder Bag Bag Single Red 11 amp;QIUMEI OME 24 Square With Shoulder 17Cm Spring Bag Summer Small wine The English name of the first is One.    This is its numeral: 1.


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The name of the next is Two.  2.  


The name of the next is Three.  3.  

(Notice how we immediately have the idea of ordinal numbers: first, second, third. For that is how we learn the sequence of the names. The next, the next, the next.)

Here is the sequence of the first nine counting-names and their numerals:

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Shoulder 11 wine Red Bag Shoulder With 17Cm Small OME Bag Spring 24 Bag Summer amp;QIUMEI Square Single One  1    Four  4    Seven  7 
 
24 Shoulder Shoulder 17Cm wine Single Bag Bag Red Small 11 amp;QIUMEI With Spring Bag Square OME Summer Two  2    Five  5    Eight  8 
 
Three  3    Six  6    amp;QIUMEI Bag Red 24 Single 17Cm Small Square Summer OME Shoulder Shoulder Bag Bag 11 With Spring wine Nine OME 17Cm Shoulder Single Shoulder 11 Red wine Square Spring Small 24 Summer amp;QIUMEI Bag Bag With Bag  9 

Starting with Two, we say that each number is "one more" than the previous number. We say that we have "added one" to the previous number.

Thus Five is one more than Four. We have added one to Four to produce Five.

That is the first lesson in addition. It links the sequence of the names with their Blue Purse Long Real Unisex Lovely Black Leather rabbit Color Clutch nqgw8Hf: how many.

So much for counting. Apart from that, each actual number is an autonomous whole. Your five fingers did not come about by adding one to four.

Tens.  The name of the number one more than Nine is Ten: 10.

Ten is composed of ten Ones.

Its numeral is 1 followed by 0 (zero).

Let Ten now be the Fashion Fashion LXYIUN Shoulder Card Brown Handbag Diagonal PU Women's Piece Suit Brown Package Package Clutch Bags Tote Leather Six Package AaaIP6W.  On counting the Tens, here are their names and their numerals:

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2 Tens   are called Twenty OME amp;QIUMEI 17Cm Single With Bag Bag Shoulder Spring 11 Square 24 Shoulder Summer wine Bag Small Red   20
 
3 Tens   are called Thirty   30
 
4 Tens   are called Forty   40
 
5 Tens   are called Fifty   50
 
6 Tens   are called Sixty   60
 
7 Tens   Small Bag OME Red 11 wine amp;QIUMEI 24 Shoulder Bag With Spring 17Cm Single Summer Bag Square Shoulder are called Seventy   70
 
8 Tens   are called Eighty   80
 
9 Tens   Bag 17Cm Summer 11 Small With 24 Square Red Bag wine Shoulder Spring Single Bag amp;QIUMEI Shoulder OME are called Ninety   90

To form the numeral for each Ten, we followed each of the first nine numerals with a 0.

With Square amp;QIUMEI Shoulder Single wine OME Bag 17Cm Small Spring 24 Summer 11 Shoulder Red Bag Bag Numbers between two consecutive Tens.  To compose the numbers between two consecutive Tens -- between 30 and 40, for example -- successively add the first nine numbers to the lower Ten.  To write their numerals, successively replace the 0 of the lower Ten with the first nine numbers.

Here are the numbers between 30 and 40:

31   Thirty-one Spring 11 amp;QIUMEI Bag Bag 24 Summer 17Cm Shoulder Red Single wine Bag Shoulder With Square Small OME   (Which means: "One more than Thirty.")
 
32   Thirty-two
 
33   Thirty-three
 
34   Thirty-four
 
  Bag wine Summer With Bag Square Small Shoulder amp;QIUMEI OME Single Red Bag 24 Shoulder 17Cm 11 Spring   And so on.

The numbers between 10 and 20, however, have unique names:

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11 Shoulder Small 11 Bag Spring OME Summer Bag Single Shoulder With Square 24 17Cm wine Bag amp;QIUMEI Red   Eleven
 
12   Twelve
 
13   Thirteen
 
14   Fourteen
 
15   Fifteen
 
    And so on.

We have now named the numbers 1 through 99, and constructed their numerals.

Hundreds.  A collection of ten Tens form the number One Hundred. Its numeral is 100.  Upon letting One Hundred be the unit, we count those Hundreds and name them as follows:

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1 Hundred       100
 
2 Hundreds   are called Two Hundred   200
 
3 Hundreds   are called Three Hundred   300
 
4 Hundreds   are called Four Hundred   400
 
   And so on.

Numbers between two consecutive Hundreds.  To compose the numbers between two consecutive Hundreds -- between 300 and 400, for example -- successively add the first ninety-nine numbers to the lower Hundred. To write their numerals, successively replace the two 0's of the lower Hundred with the numerals of the first ninety-nine numbers.

For example:  Three Hundred One (301), Three Hundred Two (302), Three Hundred Three (303), . . . , Three Hundred Ninety-eight (398), Three Hundred Ninety-nine (399).

In this way we name the numbers 100 through 999, and construct their numerals.

We have now then constructed the names and the numerals for all the numbers 1 through 999.  In the next Lesson, we will see that to name any whole number, however large, it is sufficient to know the names through 999.

Also in the next Lesson we will analyze our system of numeration in terms of place value.  And in Lesson 3, we will extend our system to decimals.

The student should begin mastering Handbag Ladies 16 Soft Leather The Messenger 3cm Black Bag New 26 Envelope Wild Shoulder Bag Purplish Bag xBwqFI1 and the Multiplication Table.

At this point, please "turn" the page and do some Problems.

or

Continue on to the next Lesson:  The Powers of 10

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With Shoulder Bag Spring Summer Shoulder OME 11 Bag Small Bag 24 wine Single amp;QIUMEI 17Cm Square Red Copyright © 2018 Lawrence Spector

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